論文引用：Hlaváč P, Parker J, Maruyama M, Fikáček M. (2021) Diversification of myrmecophilous Clavigeritae beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Pselaphinae) and their radiation in New Caledonia. Systematic Entomology 46(2): 422-452.
Clavigeritae beetles is a group of rove beetles (Staphylinidae) living as nest parasites of ants. They need to be fed by the ants to survive, as their own mouthparts are too reduced for independent feeding. The group is a diverse collection of weird but cool-looking creatures. It was supposed this is a consequence of co-evolution with ants: the beetle evolution mirrors that of the ants, and sometimes beetles "jump" to a new ant and adapt the morphology accordingly. Our team, consisting of researchers from the Czech Republic, USA and Japan, analyzed the molecular phylogeny and morphological evolution of these beetles. Surprisingly, we found out that these beetles do not co-diversify faithfully with their host ants. Instead, they seem to generate their crazy morphological diversity randomly (maybe as a consequence of their rarity and hence small populations). And they are highly promiscuous, trying to use any available ant to live with. To do so, they have to be masters at mimicking ant communication. The "best" beetle species can fool four unrelated genera of ants!